Tuesday, March 10, 2020
The U.S. Government's Role in Protecting the Environment The regulation of practices that affect the environment is a relatively recent development in the United States, but it is an excellent example of government intervention in the economy for a social purpose. Since the collective rise in consciousnessÃ about the health of the environment, such government intervention in business has become a hot topic not only in the United States but also across the globe. The Rise of Environmental Protection Policies Beginning in the 1960s, Americans became increasingly concerned about the environmental impact of industrial growth. Engine exhaust from growing numbers of automobiles, for instance, was blamed for smog and other forms of air pollution in large cities. Pollution represented what economists call an externality- a cost that the responsible entity can escape but that society as a whole must bear. With market forces unable to address such problems, many environmentalists suggested that the government had a moral obligation to protect the earths fragile ecosystems, even if doing so required some economic growth to be sacrificed. In response, a slew of laws was enacted to control pollution, including examples such as the 1963 Clean Air Act, the 1972 Clean Water Act, and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act. The Founding of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) In December 1970, environmentalists achieved a major goal with the establishment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through an executive order signed by then-president Richard Nixon.Ã The creation of the EPAÃ brought together several federal programs charged with protecting the environment into a single government agency. The EPA was founded with theÃ goal of protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations passed by Congress. Responsibilities of the EPA The EPA sets and enforces tolerable limits of pollution, and it establishes timetables to bring polluters into line with standards, an important aspect of its work since most of these requirements are recent and industries must be given reasonable time, often several years, to conform to new standards. The EPA also has the authority to coordinate and support the research and anti-pollution efforts of state and local governments, private and public groups, and educational institutions. Furthermore, regional EPA offices have the power to develop, propose, and implement approved regional programs for comprehensive environmental protection. While the EPA delegates some responsibilities such as monitoring and enforcement to state governments, it retains the authority to enforce policies through fines, sanctions, and other measures granted by the federal government. The Impact of Environmental Policies Data collected since the EPA began its work in the 1970s shows significant improvements in environmental quality. There has been a nationwide decline in virtually all air pollutants. However, in 1990, many Americans believed that still greater efforts to combat air pollution were needed. In response, Congress passed important amendments to the Clean Air Act that were signed into law by President George H. W. Bush. The legislation incorporated an innovative market-based system designed to secure a substantial reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions, which produce what is more commonly known as acid rain. This type of pollution is believed to cause serious damage to forests and lakes, particularly in the eastern part of the United States and Canada. In the years since, environmental policy has remained at the forefront of political discussion, especially as it relates to clean energy and climate change.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Radiotherapy - Essay Example is an integral part of the process of treatment, and must take into account the combined effects of these other therapies, as well as the effects of radiotherapy. Understanding the complex organisational and unique interprofessional context of radiotherapy care is essential. Discussion: According to Gronefeld; Cornuelle (1998:p.xxiv), there are several criteria in the RadiographerÃ¢â¬â¢s code of ethics, and in the statements of professional conduct developed by the College of Radiographers. These statements have made a deep impact on the radiographerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and behaviour in the fulfilment of his work; and in the guidance adopted from these important principles, in the clinical departments. We have noticed physicians, technologists, nurses, aids and others in the health care team, treating and caring for patients, and some of them Ã¢â¬Å"merely go through the motionsÃ¢â¬ (p.1). Yet there are some members in the health care team that Ã¢â¬Å"go the extra mileÃ¢â¬ for their patients. They are the true professionals who try to understand and address the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns and anxieties, they make pleasant conversation with the patient as they go about doing their work, and they treat each patient with the dignity and respect that they deserve. Health care workers who do their duty, staying focused on the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s work as their main priority, and do not get distracted by others, are also behaving as professionals, true to the Statement of Professional Conduct that is used as the guidance for behaviour and conduct. worker appraoaches the patient, addressing them by their name, speaks in a well-modulated voice, and attends to the patient, giving them her full attention. This is also professionalism of a good standard. If one of the newly appointed , freshly graduated radiolographers hired by the radiology department has an attitude of trying to intimidate and demean his co-workers, he will be avoided by all the other health care workers. The other radiographer is seen
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Miranda v. Arizona -what was the out come of the case and why i chose to report on it - Term Paper Example In short, this case succeeded in writing a new chapter in the criminal justice system in America which forced me to select this case and to write about it. A kidnapping and sexual assault occurred in Phoenix, Arizona, in March 1963. On March 13 Ernesto Miranda, 23, was arrested in his home, taken to the police station, identified by the victim, and taken into an interrogation room. Miranda was not told of his rights to counsel prior to questioning. Two hours later, investigators emerged from the room with a written confession signed by Miranda. It included a typed disclaimer, also signed by Miranda, stating that he had Ã¢â¬Å"full knowledge of my legal rights, understanding any statement I make maybe used against me,Ã¢â¬ and that he had knowingly waived those rights. Two weeks later at a preliminary hearing, Miranda again was denied counsel. At his trial he did have a lawyer, whose objections to the use of Miranda's signed confession as evidence were overruled. Miranda was convict ed of kidnapping and rape, and received a 20-year sentence (Miranda v. Arizona (1966)) The above case raised lot of constitutional issues. According to The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, an accused or a witness has the right to protect himself from being forced to incriminate. In other words, the accused has the right to stay silent in police custody or to consult with a counsel before answering the questions of the investigating officer. In other words The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution gives a privilege against self-incrimination to the suspect or accused. Earlier, prior to this case, the investigating officers in United States were using all types of physical and psychological tortures to force the accused to accept the crime. They used circumstantial evidences to arrest the suspected people when a crime occurs. However, circumstantial evidences need not be hundred percent correct in all criminal cases. It is quite possible that a smart crim inal can commit crimes and mislead the investigating officers towards innocent people with the help of created evidences. If the police officer was not smart enough, he will take those circumstantial evidences or evidences collected from the spot seriously and arrest the innocent person. If that person was unaware of his rights in police custody, he may confess the crime in order to escape from the brutal interrogation methods of police. Thus, it is quite possible that an innocent may be punished by the court. According to the criminal justice system in America, not even a single innocent person should be punished even if thousands of criminals escaped from punishment. In other words, the criminal justice system urges the investigating officers to thinks twice or thrice before arresting person for a criminal activity. An accused has been given the right to consult with a lawyer before answering the questions of an investigating officer. It is quite possible that a smart investigatin g officer may ask misleading questions to the accused and force the accused to accept the crime. The investigating officer may have better knowledge about the criminal procedures than the accused and he can utilize that knowledge effectively to make an innocent person, a criminal. In order to avoid such
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Chiquita Banana Overview Essay Chiquita Brands International, Inc. is one of the most important international marketers and distributors of food products derived from bananas, as well as other fruits and healthy snack products. Chiquita Banana revenues for about $3 billion dollars a year and employs more than 21,000 people and operates in about 70 countries worldwide. Chiquita BananaÃ together with Dole, Del Monte and Fyffes control about 80% of the global banana market. In 1993 the EU created the Common Organization of the Market in Bananas (COMB) to deal with the harsh competition between these companies. They would allow duty free access to the EU but subject to quotas to bananas from the AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s, Caribbean and Pacific, while bananas from Latin America were subject to an import tax of 176 Euros per ton and a quota of 2533 t. As an American company we have decided to take advantage of the new treaty restricting Latin American and ACP countries from exporting bananas to the EU. It will not be an easy task because we still have to compete against European banana producers, but we are an established company and we are determined to benefit from this event and gain market share in the European Union. PESTEL analysis for the European Union POLITICAL: Ã¢â¬ ¢The European Union is composed of 28 member states. Ã¢â¬ ¢The EU has created a single market by standardizing laws within the member states. Ã¢â¬ ¢Some of the objectives of creating this union is to create a better flow on the circulation of goods, capital, people and services within the union. Once a good or service is accepted within the union it is protected from customs, taxes and import quotas as long as they remain within the union. Ã¢â¬ ¢Free movement of capital is intended to allow investment of properties between countries, something that could help banana growers since they can look for more fertile land in neighboring countries. Ã¢â¬ ¢The monetary policy is the Eurozone and is governed by the European Central Bank. ECONOMIC: Ã¢â¬ ¢The European UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP is ranked as number one in the world accounting for $16.58 trillion dollars. Ã¢â¬ ¢Export goods account for $1.687 trillion, some of the main export partners of the European union are: oUS 17.3% China 8.5% Switzerland 7.9% Russia 7.3% Turkey 4.5 % Ã¢â¬ ¢Food, drinks and tobacco account for 5.9% Ã¢â¬ ¢Import of goods account for $2.302 trillion dollars and the main import partners are: China 16.2% Russia 11.9% US 11.5% Switzerland 5.8% Norway 5.6% Ã¢â¬ ¢Food, drinks and tobacco account for 5.2% of import goods. Ã¢â¬ ¢The service sector is the most important one in the EU making up 69% of the GDP followed by the manufacturing industry with 28.4% GDP and agriculture for only 2.3% of GDP Ã¢â¬ ¢The agricultural sector is supported by subsidies from the EU and currently represents 40-50% of the EUÃ¢â¬â¢s total spending. SOCIOCULTURAL FACTORS: Ã¢â¬ ¢There is limited data on European childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fruit intake, but the data shows that the average fruit intake is about 141 g per day. Fruit intake is highest in Austria and Portugal and is the lowest in Iceland and Spain. Ã¢â¬ ¢Girls and women consume more fruits and vegetables and boys and men do, there is no simple explanation to this but itÃ¢â¬â¢s believed to be because women in general are more concerned about their weight and keeping a slim fit figure. Ã¢â¬ ¢Children tend to eat less fruit as they age, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the exact opposite with adults. Intake levels increase with age, possibly because income and knowledge increases and one becomes more aware of the benefits of good eating habits. Ã¢â¬ ¢Men once they are married have an increase in fruit intake. Women seem to have an impact on their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s fruit intake as well as the variety of fruits eaten. Women tend to handle Ã¢â¬Ëhealth-relatedÃ¢â¬â¢ issues more commonly than men so they tend to buy and cook more food than men. Ã¢â¬ ¢ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s fruit intake levels directly correlate with how much their parents consume. But pressure to eat fruit does not positively affect childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s intake, but it is enhanced when parents are good role-models and encourage them to eat fruits and vegetables. Ã¢â¬ ¢People with self-efficacy tendencies have a higher fruit intake in adults, also people with a high self-esteem tend to eat more fruits and vegetables because they take their health into account. TECHNOLOGICAL: Ã¢â¬ ¢The EU is funding a project for pesticide free fruits and vegetables by removing the threat of fruit flies. Helping farmers meet customersÃ¢â¬â¢ demands for safe fruits while being environmentally conscious. oThe project pretend to use an insect attractant to draw insects and pathogens such as: infectious micro-organisms, virus, fungus that cause diseases in fungus. oThis attractant will be applied in the form of an insect trap near plantations to take bugs away from plantations, this will be a long-lasting and biodegradable baiting station. Ã¢â¬ ¢Europe is becoming more conscious about maintaining a cleaner environment, the EU is committed to providing a better future for the next generations. So they specialize on clean energy, from turbines in Germany to solar panels in Spain, and countries across the EU are using natural resources of sustainable energy bringing investment to businesses and citizens. LEGAL: Ã¢â¬ ¢With the birth of the Single European Market in 1993 the Common Market Organization for Bananas was put into effect (COMB). COMB is concerned on the importation, sale and distribution of bananas. Ã¢â¬ ¢A policy was set in motion allowing EU suppliers to export duty free bananas to all EU states. Also quotas were set for African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (ACP) imposing import licenses for a fixed rate of volume of bananas, and limited imports through excessively high tariffs. oA quota of 857,000 tons for duty free access from ACP countries Ã¢â¬ ¢Three types of licenses were issued in order to regulate this quota to ACP countries Ã¢â¬ ¢Third countries that were not considered in the quota are subject to a tariff of Ecu 850 per ton. Ã¢â¬ ¢In order to prevent any loss of income by EU banana producers a compensation of payments for 850,000 tons were granted in case the prices fell below the production costs. ENVIRONMENTAL: Ã¢â¬ ¢Flat-free water chargers are common in some countries in Europe. This does not encourage efficient behavior to households and agriculture according to a report from the European Environment Agency (EEA). Ã¢â¬ ¢The EEA is considering water pricing in the following countries: Croatia, England and wales, France, Germany, Netherlands, Scotland, Serbia, Slovenia and Spain. Ã¢â¬ ¢In most countries, farmers are allowed to use as much water as they wantÃ for a flat rate. By charging the amount of water used in Europe it prognosticated to cut down on water used by agriculture for about 10 Ã¢â¬â 20 %. This will push farmers to not only cut down on their water consumption but to invest on better irrigation system as well as fixing water leaks. Ã¢â¬ ¢The general population in the European Union seem to support this motion to cut down water overuse, about 84% of the population agree with this principle. Marketing Mix In order to better penetrate the European market we have to better understand our own products, so a marketing mix was created to see what we can offer to the market and this will help us to better oversee our operations in the European market. PRODUCT: Chiquita banana takes pride in their first class bananas. But banana consumption vary from country to country so they have other products to fulfill the change in each countries demand. They always keep in mind the environment and consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s health, so they have products that meet these two qualifications, products such as: readymade salads, fruit snacks. An independent survey was conducted about peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s preferences and attitudes about bananas, and the poll indicated that the taste of Chiquita bananas was better than competing brands and people preferred it 2 to 1 to the leading brand. The bananas by Chiquita banana are 100% organic approved and certified by the USDA which means that they adhere to the requirements and meet the organic standards of growing bananas. PRICE: These are the prices for bananas per metric ton for the last few months. Bananas prices vary depending on the location where they are being sold. In France the average price for a kg is about $2.00 dollars. In Spain is about $1.00 per kg. But these prices tend to fluctuate with the seasons as well, and some variables take place to why this happens. One of the reasons is that bananas grow in tropical areas so they need hot weather to grow, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s harder to maintain them fresh during summer. PLACE: Chiquita banana sells its products internationally to about 70 countries worldwide. The majority of the products grown come from South America and the Caribbean which are then sent to distribution centers. Europe is the largest consumer and importer of bananas in the world, so this would be the best place for the largest banana producer in the world to invest and tap into this gold mine. In the year 2011 people living in the European Union consumed an estimate of 5 million tons of bananas and about 4.6 million tons were imported. Europe would be the best market to try to penetrate and take market share from. Sweden, UK, Denmark, Finland and Portugal are the main consumers of bananas in Europe (see Appendix A). These are the countries within the EU for Chiquita banana to penetrate first. PROMOTION: The way that Chiquita banana promotes their product is very innovative. They have sticker contests and they encourage people to send drawings for possible logos for their stickers. But their latest promotion is endorsing the charismatic minion characters from the movie Despicable Me, they have even worked on an app game available for apple and droid. The point of this game is to run and get as many bananas as possible without running into any obstacles. There is no record for the increase in sales of Chiquita bananas yet because the game is recent, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s safe to say that this gamification strategy will work well for the company. Also, as a part of their promotion they attend school lunches, celebrate major anniversaries and sponsor Olympics. They use the slogan Ã¢â¬Å"quite possibly, The WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Perfect FoodÃ¢â¬ SWOT Analysis STRENGTHS: Ã¢â¬ ¢Chiquita Banana is number one in the fruit market in the world and sells its products to more than 70 countries worldwide. Ã¢â¬ ¢The company had a $3 billion dollar revenue last year. Ã¢â¬ ¢Its net income is about $405 million dollars. Ã¢â¬ ¢The company is committed to being socially responsible A decade ago they implemented social accountability 8000 which has helped improve their practices to better serve the community. Ã¢â¬Å"SA 8000 provides standards based on national laws, international human rights norms and the conventions of the International Labor Organization. Management systemÃ requirements ensure that these standards are consistently implemented over time, and independent audits and certification help measure progress and identify areas for improvement.Ã¢â¬ WEAKNESSES: Ã¢â¬ ¢The company has not been able to reach out to consumers in Europe, they had a $2 million profit during the last quarter, better compared to the previews year where there was an $11 million loss. Ã¢â¬ ¢Sales fell 2% from $793 million to $774 million in one year. Ã¢â¬ ¢There was an 18 an article was published of Ã¢â¬ËChiquita secrets revealedÃ¢â¬â¢ by the enquirer, where the company had been accused of mistreating workers in Central America, polluting the environment and allowing cocaine to be brought to the US in its ships. OPPORTUNITIES: Ã¢â¬ ¢With the new regulations from 1993 the European market has opened for banana companies that do not belong to the ACP countries and Latin America. Ã¢â¬ ¢Our opportunities go hand in hand with the highest consumers of bananas in the EU. According to appendix A, they are: oSweden UK Denmark Finland Portugal Ã¢â¬ ¢These are the first countries that we must try to focus our internationalization efforts into, since they are the highest consumers of our product. Ã¢â¬ ¢Even with the new regulations by COMB Chiquita banana has no real competition from European banana growers, European countries are not optimal for banana growth. Chiquita banana can bring larger quantities at competing prices. THREATS: Ã¢â¬ ¢Some of the threats come from competing companies like: Dole, Del Monte and Fyffes. Ã¢â¬ ¢The analysis of this figure shows ChiquitaÃ¢â¬â¢s market share shrinking from 1966 to 1995 and then remaining constant at 25% market share. Ã¢â¬ ¢We can also observe that for the year 2007 Dole Company had a bigger market share than Chiquita. Ã¢â¬ ¢Chiquita has to be attentive of the existing competing brands but also the new incoming brands that are stealing market share from the company. Internationalization Strategy and Viability As already stated before, the European Market is the biggest consumer and importer of bananas. Which is why we are interested in creating an internationalization strategy in order to visualize which cities in the European market target more specifically. There is a map in appendix A portraying the European Countries and an estimate of banana consumption, we can see that the northern countries together with Portugal enjoy eating bananas the most. Then we can see a ranking list with the countries that consume the most bananas in Europe, with Sweden being on top of the list. Chiquita banana Co. gets their product from the countries with a yellow dot. Since these are countries that have hot and humid temperature, adequate for banana growth. This map shows us that that in order for the bananas to be shipped from this countries to the EU they have to be shipped in a boat that has to travel the Atlantic for about 6,000 miles. These bananas are stored and refrigerated. This crossing of the A tlantic takes an average of 5 days and the bananas are refrigerated to a temperature between 13.5 and 15 C stalling ripening. Even though flavor and consistency remain virtually intact, this voyage shortens the shelf life to be 7-10 days. Portugal would be a strategic point for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internationalization strategy. A logistics platform could be set up in Porto, a northern city in Portugal, this way we can kill two birds with one rock. We re-fuel the ships and get them ready for their journey to Sweden (our top priority in terms of distribution) and unload some containers to distribute PortugalÃ¢â¬â¢s banana demand. Aside from Portugal the countries with the highest consumption of bananas per capita is in Northern Europe, so another logistic platform would be convenient as a final stop before the final destination in each country. Le Havre, France would be a convenient location since it is south of the UK and it is cheaper to have a distribution center there because the euro is not as strong as the sterling pound. Once we have our logistics platform set up in Le Havre we can make accommodatio ns and agreements with companies and retailers that handle fruits and vegetables belonging to the countries that have the highest banana consumption. We would deliver to the followingÃ terminal or ports: Ã¢â¬ ¢Gothenburg, Sweden Ã¢â¬ ¢Brighton, UK Ã¢â¬ ¢Skagen, Denmark Ã¢â¬ ¢Finland is a little more inaccessible through the Baltic Sea, so we would ship FinlandÃ¢â¬â¢s required bananas to Gothenburg, Sweden as well. From Sweden we could work another logistic route to get to Finland by truck. Ã¢â¬ ¢Porto, Portugal Ã¢â¬ ¢Le Havre, France CHANCE: Iceland is EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s top producer of bananas with their world of the art greenhouse installations, even though they rely on their technology they have to constantly monitor their products and create the proper environment for the bananas. This is where Chiquita banana has an opportunity since they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to worry about creating the right conditions for banana growth, the company looks for a convenient location for banana growth and plants the fruit. This enables the company to worry solely on cropping and shipping. Another advantage that the company has over the biggest European banana producer is that, Chiquita banana can acquire bananas in massive quantities while IcelandÃ¢â¬â¢s producers have to create the environment to grow more bananas. This is unless the COMB sets a tighter quota. Incoterm An incoterm is a made up word composed of three words. Ã¢â¬ËinÃ¢â¬â¢ means international, Ã¢â¬ËcoÃ¢â¬â¢ commerce and Ã¢â¬ËtermÃ¢â¬â¢ means term. Incoterms are used to describe the type of relationship between buyer and supplier and they type of contract they use to deliver and receive a product. POSSIBLE INCOTERMS FOR THE COMPANY As a seller the most optimal incoterm for the company would be to agree with the buyer of working with Ã¢â¬ËEx WorksÃ¢â¬â¢ since the buyer would have to assume the transportation costs and the risks of brining the goods to their stores. I believe this to be very one sided and not efficient, since in order to maximize profits a business deal has to be long-term. Sooner or later one ofÃ the competing brands could offer our buyers a better agreement and we would be out of business, so I would call this a Ã¢â¬Ëlose-lose situationÃ¢â¬â¢. Another option would be the exact opposite from Ã¢â¬ËEx worksÃ¢â¬â¢ where the seller mantains most of the obligations and expenses while there is minimum for the buyere. This would be a DDP, here the Ã¢â¬Å"seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pas all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. Seller is not responsible for unloading.Ã¢â¬ t his is also very one sided. My belief is that if we are going to have a long lasting relationship with our business partner we have to compromise, and here we would be taking all most of the bourden of the business deal. Solution As already stated before, in order to create a long lasting relationship with our business partners and maximize profits we have to compromize. Chiquita Banana is trying to gain marketshare in Europe, so the best thing we can do with our business partners is to share the transportation burden and costs. Deliverd at Terminal (DAT) incoterm would be the best viable solution for Chiquita and our buyers. We can promise to deliver the product fresh, safe and sound to the following city ports: Gothenburg, Brighton, Skagen, Porto and Le Havre. We can accept all costs and risks (except for import clearance costs) and from each terminal they can send the bananas to their respective distribution centers or directly to the retailers. That is up to our business partners to decide. It is safe to say that we are taking most of the costs, since it is expensive to cross the atlantic with ships and maintain the fruit at a certain temperature to keep it fresh. But in order to have our buyers support, we have to go the extra mile. This strategy at the same time will speed up the process of internationalization and market share gain for Chiquita Banana. Works Cited European Union. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Oct. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013 Economy of the European Union. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Oct. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013 Economy of the European Union. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Oct. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Intelligent Approaches to Achieving Pesticide-free Produce. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. CHAPTER 3 BANANA IMPORTING COUNTRIES AND TRADE POLICIES. The World Banana Economy, 1985-2002. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Water: Charging Full Cost Can Encourage More Efficient Use. Ã¢â¬â. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Chiquita.com Chiquita Organic Bananas: Organic Food. Chiquita.com Chiquita Organic Bananas: Organic Food. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Europe Largest Banana Importer Worldwide. Europe Largest Banana Importer Worldwide. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Chiquita.com Social Responsibility Is How We Conduct Business. Chiquita.com Social Responsibility Is How We Conduct Business. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Chiquita Banana Sales Remain Weak in Europe. Chiquita Banana Sales Remain Weak in Europe. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013 Chiquita Brands International. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Oct. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Banana. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 20 Oct. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Martin Stott. Iceland: EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s Biggest Producer of Bananas. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. Economy of the European Union. Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Oct. 2013. Web. 20 Oct. 2013.
Monday, January 20, 2020
War Against Boys: Fact or Fiction Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the oldest debates in psychology is the nature versus nurture debate. Its roots extend far beyond the nineteenth century psychologists such as Freud and Skinner into the beginnings of scientific thought. Even Greek philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato addressed the issue of how personality is formed. Today, a relative consensus has been reached that nature and nurture work in tangent with one another; one can have many biological possibilities of which the environment determines the development. In any area involving gender however, this debate is still strong. In the War Against Boys: How misguided feminism is harming our young men, Christina Hoff Sommers points out that some feminists still support the nurture side of the debate without acknowledging any possibility of a biological influence. Sommers insists on examining the growing number of studies indicating that gender differences are not all socialized but are biological sex differences, just as differences in physiology between the sexes are biologically based. However, in her efforts to show how misguided feminism has become in its search for gender equality, Sommers takes the other extreme of the debate and discounts any differences formed during socialization. Although literature for the biological explanation of gender construction is growing, one cannot discount the environmental influences as Sommers does. A Biological Explanation Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If there is one aspect of research in sex differences to which Sommers does justice, it is the research supporting the differing biology of males and females. She convincingly summarizes the evidence for the biological influence in a clear, concise manner. First, she addresses the cognitive abilities with which a large difference has been shown to favor males or females. Males are on the whole superior to females in visuospatial abilities, especially mental rotation tasks (Halpern, 1992). In fact, Sommers doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mention this, but the effect size found in this area of sex differences is one of the largest that psychologists study in any field with an effect size of d=0.9 (Halpern, 1992). While not the best at visuospatial skills, females are superior in their verbal skills especially Ã¢â¬Å"writing, retrieval from long-term memory, and verbal articulation tasksÃ¢â¬ (Halpern, 1992). These cognitive differences do not suppose a cause however. They could arise not from biology, but from socialization as the feminists argue. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To prove a biological cause is implicated, Sommers has to draw on research that connects biology such as hormones or structural differences to related behaviors and preferences.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
I crept through the house, cringing every time my foot hit a loose floorboard or a creaky corner. From the light at the far end of the house, I could tell Father had left the sitting room and was already in his study, no doubt writing down the record he and Jonathan had concocted in his own journal. I stood in the door frame and watched him for a moment. His hair was snow-white, and I saw age spots on his hands. Despite the lies I'd heard earlier, my heart went out to him. Here was a man who'd never known an easy life and who, after burying a wife, now had to bury two sons. I took a step toward him, and Father's head jerked upward. Ã¢â¬Å"Dear God Ã¢â¬ ¦,Ã¢â¬ he said, dropping his pen to the floor with a clatter. Ã¢â¬Å"Father,Ã¢â¬ I said, holding out my hands to him. He stood up, his eyes darting wildly. Ã¢â¬Å"It's okay,Ã¢â¬ I said gently. Ã¢â¬Å"I just want to talk with you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Y ou're dead, Stefan,Ã¢â¬ Father said slowly, still gaping at me. I shook my head. Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever you think of Damon and me, you have to know that we didn't betray you.Ã¢â¬ The fear on Father's face abruptly turned to fury. Ã¢â¬Å"Y did betray me. Not only did you betray ou me, you betrayed the whole town. Y should be ou dead, after the way you've shamed me.Ã¢â¬ I watched him, anger rising up inside me. Ã¢â¬Å"Even in our death, you feel only shame?Ã¢â¬ I asked. It was something Damon would say, and in a way, I felt his presence beside me. I was doing this for him. I was doing it for both of us, so that at least we'd die with truth on our side. But Father was barely listening. Instead, he was staring at me. Ã¢â¬Å"Y ou're one of them now. Isn't that right, Stefan?Ã¢â¬ Father said, backing away from me, slowly, as if I were about to lunge and attack him. Ã¢â¬Å"No. No. I'll never be one of them.Ã¢â¬ I shook my head, hoping against hope that Father would believe me. Ã¢â¬Å"But you are. I watched you bleed and take your last breath. I left you for dead. And now I see you here. Y are one of them,Ã¢â¬ Father said, his ou back now against the brick wall. Ã¢â¬Å"Y saw me get shot?Ã¢â¬ I asked in confusion. I ou remembered the voices. The chaos. Vampire being yelled over and over again in the darkness. Feeling Noah pull me off Damon. Everything fading to black. Ã¢â¬Å"I pulled the trigger myself. I pulled it on you, and I pulled it on Damon. And apparently it wasn't enough,Ã¢â¬ Father said. Ã¢â¬Å"Now I need to finish the job,Ã¢â¬ he said, his voice as cold as ice. Ã¢â¬Å"Y killed your own sons?Ã¢â¬ I asked, anger of ou my own coursing through my veins. Father stepped toward me menacingly, and even though he thought I was a monster, I was the one who felt fear. Ã¢â¬Å"Y were both dead to me as ou soon as you sided with the vampires. And now, to come in here and ask forgiveness, as if what you did could be excused with an I'm sorry. No. No.Ã¢â¬ Father stepped away from his desk and walked toward me, his eyes still darting to the left and the right, except that now it was as if he were the hunter, rather than a hunted animal. Ã¢â¬Å"Y know, it's ou a blessing your mother died before she could see what a disgrace you've become.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I haven't turned yet. I don't want to. I came to say good-bye. I'm going to die, Father. Y did ou what you set out to do. Y killed me,Ã¢â¬ I said. Tears ou sprang from my eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"It didn't have to be this way, Father. That's what you and Jonathan Gilbert should write in your false history, that it didn't have to be this way.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"This is the way it has to be,Ã¢â¬ Father said, lunging for a cane that he kept in a large vase in the corner of the room. Swiftly, he broke it in two on the floor and held the long, jagged end out toward me. Quickly, without thinking, I sidestepped Father and yanked his free arm back, sending him tumbling sideways against the brick wall. Father screamed in anguish as he hit the floor. And then I saw it. The stake was protruding from his stomach, blood spurting in all directions. I blanched, feeling my stomach rise to my chest and bile fill my throat. Ã¢â¬Å"Father!Ã¢â¬ I rushed over to him and bent down. Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't mean to. Father Ã¢â¬ ¦,Ã¢â¬ I gasped. I grabbed the stake and yanked it out of his abdomen. Father shrieked, and immediately blood gushed like a geyser from the wound. I watched, horrified, but also entranced. The blood was so red, so deep, so beautiful. It was as if it were calling to me. It was as if I'd die that second if I didn't have the blood. And so, unbidden, I moved my hand to the wound and brought my cupped hand to my lips, tasting the liquid as it touched my gums, my tongue, and my throat. Ã¢â¬Å"Get away from me!Ã¢â¬ Father hoarsely whispered, pushing himself away until his entire back was pressed against the wall. He scratched my hand in an effort to bat it away from the wound, then slumped against the wall, his eyes closing. Ã¢â¬Å"I Ã¢â¬ ¦,Ã¢â¬ I began, but then felt a shooting, stabbing pain in my mouth. It was worse than what I remembered about being shot. It was a feeling of tightness, followed by the sensation of a million needles sticking into my flesh. Ã¢â¬Å"Get away Ã¢â¬ ¦,Ã¢â¬ Father breathed, covering his face with his hands as he struggled for air. I pulled my own hands from my mouth and ran my fingers over my teeth, which had become sharp and pointed. Then I realized: I was one of them now. Ã¢â¬Å"Father, drink from me. I can save you!Ã¢â¬ I said urgently, reaching down and pulling him up to a sitting position against the wall. I took my wrist and brought it to my mouth, allowing my newly knife- sharp teeth to easily rip the skin. I flinched, then held the wound toward Father, who backed away, blood continuing to gush from his wound. Ã¢â¬Å"I can fix you. If you drink this blood, it will heal your wounds. Please?Ã¢â¬ I begged, looking into Father's eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"I'd rather die,Ã¢â¬ Father pronounced. A moment later his eyes fluttered shut and slumped back on the floor, a pool of blood forming around his body. I placed my hand on his heart, feeling it slow until it stopped.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
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